Concepto de Desertificación

Si buscamos la palabra "desierto" en el diccionario, este nos hablará de un lugar despoblado, inhabitado. Se trata de un lugar con pocos seres vivos, es decir, de un territorio con poca biomasa y poca productividad biológica. Por tanto, llamamos desertificación a una "disminución de la biomasa y la productividad biológica de un territorio", la cual puede ocurrir tanto en regiones áridas como en húmedas, como el Amazonas o los bosques de pinos del norte de Europa afectados por la lluvia ácida. Cuando esta disminución de la productividad biológica ocurre en un territorio cercano a los desiertos hablamos de un proceso de desertización, cómo ocurre en la Isla de Fuerteventura.

La productividad biológica de un territorio depende de tres recursos básicos: 1. Agua: como molécula indispensable para que se produzcan todas las reacciones químicas en las células y se faciliten los procesos de intercambio. 2. Suelo: como sustrato que almacene el agua durante un periodo de tiempo después de que cesen las lluvias y suministre los nutrientes necesarios para el crecimiento de la vegetación, sobre la cual se asientan las cadenas tróficas en los ecosistemas terrestres. 3. Biodiversidad: especies adaptadas a producir la máxima biomasa en unas condiciones de suelo y agua determinadas. Generalmente esas especies son las nativas y endémicas.

Por tanto, todo proceso que contribuya a una degradación del agua, el suelo o la biodiversidad puede considerarse un proceso de desertificación. En Fuerteventura existe una degradación de estos tres recursos:

1. Degradación del agua. Degradación en cantidad por extraer un volumen de agua subterránea muy superior al que se ingresa por infiltración y degradación en calidad por intrusión salina, contaminación por fertilizantes y salinización de las aguas encharcadas en las presas.

2. Degradación de la biodiversidad. Debido a la destrucción de hábitats, sobrepastoreo, introducción de especies exóticas, pérdida de variedades locales de diversas especies cultivadas, etc.

3. Degradación del suelo. Este es el aspecto que se tratará en esta ponencia


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